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Nigeria has been home to a number of kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia.The modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, and took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914., commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean.Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC.The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country.At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire (also known as the Sokoto Caliphate).

Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko (an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese) and further.Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo.The Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria.This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who later married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator.The origin of the name Niger, which originally applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain.

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